Volunteer tourism is often touted as a more responsive, authentic and meaningful form of tourism, where one can "make a difference" and which gives back to local communities in comparison to the destructive nature of mass tourism. Orphanage tourism is advertised in such a manner, with sending organisations and orphanages encouraging volunteers and emphasising the benefits of such holidays. Conversely, academics, UNICEF and Friends International claim that orphanage tourism is supporting an unsavoury orphanage industry, complicit in the separation of children from their families with the promise of a better life while keeping them in a state of poverty to attract tourist money. This research examines the impacts that orphanage tourism in Cambodia has on both orphanages and those it asserts to be helping: Cambodian orphans. Drawing on existing literature and semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 84 key informants ranging from orphanage directors to volunteers, to representatives from three NGOs working against orphanage tourism this paper will first examine the possible positive impacts that orphanage tourism can have at orphanages in Cambodia. This entails exploring whether volunteering in orphanages in Cambodia contributes to under-resourced social and educational sectors, and is providing services that cannot be fulfilled by Khmer staff. It will then investigate the claims of corruption and underdeveloped child protection policies which could be fostering psychological issues, with children developing attachment issues or internalising notions of difference due to their construction as an attraction, something to be viewed.